This selection of essays marked a breakthrough in studies of the Garvey movement and helped shape subsequent scholarly work. The essays were originally presented to the first international seminar of Garvey scholars held in 1973 at the University of the West Indies. The seminar surveyed both the international scope and local activities of the Garvey movement in the United States, Africa, the Caribbean and Europe. It examined the relationship with other political organizations and documented the repressive actions of contemporary governments against Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. The essays also assess the UNIA's impact on modern decolonization and civil rights movements. The collection was first published in 1986 to mark the centenary of Garvey's birth in 1987.